Legal Status of official English in Missouri

In 2008, Missouri’s voters passed an amendment to the state constitution by a landslide vote of 86.3%.

Missouri’s Official English Constitutional Amendment


Section 34. That English shall be the language of all official proceedings in this state.

Section A.  Article I, Constitution of Missouri, is amended by adding thereto one new section, known as section 34, which reads:

Section 34. That English shall be the language of all official proceedings in this state.  Official proceedings shall be limited to any meeting of a public governmental body at which any public business is discussed, decided, or public policy formulated, whether such meeting is conducted in person or by means of communication equipment, including, but not limited to, conference call, video conference, Internet chat, or Internet message board.  The term “official proceeding” shall not include an informal gathering of members of a public governmental body for ministerial or social purposes, but the term shall include a public vote of all or a majority of the members of a public governmental body, by electronic communication or any other means, conducted in lieu of holding an official proceeding with the members of the public governmental body gathered at one location in order to conduct public business.



4,961,741 English
264,281 All languages other than English combined
110,752 Spanish or Spanish Creole
30,680 German
19,547 French (incl. Patois, Cajun)
11,631 Chinese
9,420 Vietnamese
8,350 Serbo-Croatian
6,710 Italian
5,469 Russian
5,137 Arabic
5,117 African languages
4,753 Korean
4,645 Tagalog
3,062 Japanese
2,294 Polish
2,104 Hindi
2,040 Greek
1,987 Urdu
1,693 Persian
1,311 Thai
1,259 Portuguese or Portuguese Creole
1,238 Other Native North American languages
1,231 Gujarathi
1,002 Hebrew
966 Scandinavian languages
964 Mon-Khmer, Cambodian
892 Laotian
853 Yiddish
700 Hungarian
656 French Creole
201 Armenian
156 Navajo
70 Miao, Hmong